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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol Ii Mon Khmer Siamese Chinese Families"

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This dialect of Khassi is spoken in the south-east comer of the District of the Khasi
and Jaintia Hills, in the country between Jowai and Jaintiapur. The word War means
valleys. To its east and north, we find Synteng, and, to its west and north-west,
Standard Khassi. The estimated number of its speakers is 7,000.
This dialect differs much more from the standard than does Synteag. There is no
fixed form of spelling, and it will be found in the specimens that there is little uni-
formity observed in writing the same word when it occurs more than once. The follow-
ing are the principal points in which the dialect differs from Standard Khassi,
The Vocabulary frequently differs. Thus, we hare mi for wei} one; nia for kjat,
a foot; I'men for Mat, a tooth, and many others. Even when a word is retained, it
undergoes great changes. Thus, d for dr, two; tai for Mi, a hand ; hm for khun, a child j
$ni for ing, a house.
As regards Pronunciation* we should note the occurrence of the letter n or«/,
which has been explained under the head of Synteng. Generally speaking the pronun-
ciation of words is indefinite. Thus, we have bothyi^rat and stfngdi meaning 'a dayJ.
The Order of Words is not so strictly observed as in the Standard dialect. The
subject, and especially the pronoun indicating the subject, frequently follow the verb.
As regards 'Articles/ the frequent use of the diminutive i as a neuter article should
be observed. Thus, i swah-*m, the property of thee. V, Tsa, and U are used as in the
Standard dialect, but i is much oftener used for the plural (besides being used in the
neuter singular) than M.
ITOTOS,—The prefix of the genitive isjong as in the Standard dialect, but it is very
often omitted, as in u trai-shnong ka-te ka~ri, a citizen of that country.
For the Accusative-Dative, the prefix is ei, corresponding to the Standard ia, as in
e%*iet them or to them.
For the Dative, we have the Standard ha (also written he), and also tit, as in tu
madani (he sent him) to the fields.
The prefix ft is used in a great variety of meanings. Its proper use seems to be to
denote the Ablative, as in ti u-pa, from a father; <Mm ti ki-s!iakri, one from (§.&, of)
the servants. But it is also used for the Locative, as in a-ah u ti Ica-lahi, he was in the
field; dm u ti radmg », he fell on bis neck. Again it is used for the Dative, as in ong
u U u-pa, he said to the father.
(It is possible that this word is borrowed from some Tai language, in which ti is
used as the prefix both of the Dative and of the Ablative,)
Adjectives—The Adjectival prefix corresponding to the Standard ba seems to be a
or IM. The following are examples of comparison,—
wa-ry-um, good.
rap ry-um, better.
ry-nm tarn, or ry-um bare, best,
The comparative prolix rap also occurs in Syntong.